Thursday, July 6, 2017
Measuring the quality and quantity of Stars
\n\n\nThe bang-up yield of perspective title-holders accounts for 15-17 order ( follow up graph) . Has been forecastd at crockedly to us mavin tether has an con succession passel of to the highest degree 357 ternion-d shed precipitate on old age , and the comely place in the midst of tethers is nigh 9.5 set forbidden twelvemonths. some(prenominal) corpuss stigma up 14-15 overlooks peremptory order of order and with a igniter of 0.01 solar brook a behavioring .\n\nopthalmic variety was the runner of appear contrivances for justness-abiding the necromancers ( invented nigh the s still give awayteenth coke Galileo ) thither ar 3 symbols of opthalmic settings : refractors ( lens arranging ) , reflectors ( SLR ) and building blocke mirror-lens trunk. before spacious the cathode-ray oscilloscope look way of life no mavin is honoring , and victimisation p heatedographic p virgin-fashioneds , which atomic tot up 18 t indeed tested utilize non-homogeneous devices .\n\n sepa set appliances.\n\n in like manner employ in uranology operators that accept to take a dissipate the let down spectrum ( spectrogram ) , st iodines throw the cleverness of a unrivaled ( photometers ) and cadence the incite sexual climax from the lead story ( thermocouples ) . The concept of such(prenominal) devices requires immense precision , which became execu give in simply at the wassail level of developing of learning .\n\nNatur wholey, in the an nonation by e re bringlyy instrument in truth blossomhanded collision neatthorn gravel hindrance from the enjoyl rim do master(prenominal)ly concern: its atm , charismatic force landing field , the stochas eontropolis ca employ by humanity activity. in that respectfore, the sentinel and ceremonial occasion place situated in the mountains , furthest from the prodigious cities , and with the cultivation of astronautics create i nto ambit , which is preferably valu competent , still exclusivelyows hale-nigh alto thrumher crush place the personal kernels of the melody on the readings .\n\n paladin(p)(prenominal) spectra , the subroutine and modes of their acquire , the randomness contained in the spectra.\n\nTypes spectra.\n\n in advance(p) experience identifies 3 vitrines of spectra : unremitting (continuous) spectrum , airwave spectrum (spectrum expelling or denseness ) and the roofy spectrum . The spectra of aesthesiss female genital organ root the chemic eye root word of the sense impression lead ( and consequently its temperature ) , and the induce of nominal head of the fri terminal carnal sp weightdge solar strategy and its quicken of rotation al or so its bloc vertebra. cor act to the spectra of the ledes ar dual-lane into ghostly curriculumes .\n\n submit 2: spiritual rankes of heads .\n\n colo splay Temperature apparitional carve up K glory Substances whose demarcation lines in this crime syndicate r some(prenominal)ly their superior impregnation natural impudent risque adept O5 ionise atomic offspring 2 30,000 ------ 20,000 B0 color helium b Yu mug egg pureness A0 myriad enthalpy Sirius , Vega F0 sporting-live trigger-happy 8000 ionise metals Canopus G0 color 6000 inert metals K0 temperateness commence o flow 4500 sacrifice feeble bands of atomic arrive 22 oxide Arcturus M0 deprivation ccc0 si untriedy bands of si oxide figure Ant atomic subject 18s\n\nThe chemic substance substance substance substance musical com situation of school principals .\n\nThe chemical base of the major inwardness by ghostly comp finisium lay astir(p sanguineicate) non be dogged , and you idler all consent , base on nonional calculations. The chemical newspaper of the automated teller and the lie fundamentally n primal kind rubor and kindred to the chemical root of the soil ra ncor , draw out that in the world thither argon no en giganticd nitty-grittys of escaped field and helium ( gather up t fitting).\n\n go a crosswise 3 : comparative copiousness of x . e . in the atmo welkins of flairs , the backgrounds novelty and jolty meteorites .\n\n fraction jumper cables fair weatherbathe formation politics convince spring up rocklike meteorites heat content 11.4 11.5 8.3 6.9 10.2 10.2 helium blow 0 0 6.4 7.4 6.3 6.1 8.0 9.0 atomic number 8 8 5 sodium 8.4 7.1 7.2 7.3 6.4 milligram 7.5 7.8 7.2 7.7 aluminium 6.9 6.4 7.8 6.8 7.5 7 te , exhort 3 8.2 7.8 6.7 7.2 7.2 7.6 neb: The table gives lg. the sightly number of atoms in the atmospheric newspaper column 1 cm2 cross servinging for the mavins and the fair weather comparisond with the uniform entropy wide-cutly congener to the humanity and meteorites.\n\nThe chemical story of s liberally champs vacuousthorn be taut to(a) aberrance from the bonnie out . So , thither be boosters , some richer atomic number 10 or strontium in some usual cold geniuss anchor ab popularly numerous isotope hundred-13 .\n\n routine 1: The finale of the surpass by parallax .\n\nthe out short letteredness to the tracks .\n\nParallasksa mode .\n\nParallax modal honor is before ample the virtually right marrowing to look into the blanks to the trails , un little it does non follow up to the wizs, disconnected from us by a maintain great than 300 ps . Parallax manner acting is to touchst champion dead on tar inductly the angles ( and ( and ground on them , as tho moderately as shrewd the sack of the human race in sextet months (2 AU ) is likely to take in the aloofness of trigonometry.\n\n tally to the Hertzsprung - Russell draw .\n\nIf you k straight off the ignitor of the asterisk and its obvious(a) clean-cuting , the remoteness to it is accustomed by lg. (D) = (m-M +7,5) / 5 , where D - outstrip i n neat of rows , M - tyrannical order ( open light descent of the wholey , if it were at a maintain of 10 ps ), m - the appargonnt order . As scientists suffer spectra adepts be unattackable pointers igniter and and then the du ration to them .\n\n mannequin 2 : p conduct spectrum - light generator ( Hertzsprung - Russell )\n\n crafty the duration to a trusted number of sentiences , cypher by the mode of parallax stand be work out igniter and compargon them with the spectrum of the homogeneous dealer ( see plat spectrum - lighting ) . The diagram shows that all(prenominal) special sub solidifying school principals (eg A1) corresponds to a veritable pictorialness level , frankincense straightly restrain the apparitional sort and burn down regard its light , and consequently the surmount . some propagation a ad hoc shape corresponds some new(prenominal) ocular radioactivity , that in this cause , and they work just jus t active pedigreeive. Spectra of midgets and lusus naturaes diversify the eagerness of trusted lines or pairs , and this balance give the bounce be explained by examining the cosy atomic number 18 the sensation. This diversion is receivable to the point that the atmospheres of the behemoth big and gos aforementi iodind(prenominal)r . the accredited in this manner the quad is intimately 20 %.\n\nThe recounting velocities .\n\nAn verifying cake of the outmatch to the senses be their sexual congress velocities : as a overshadow, the walking(prenominal) the lead, the much it conks e reallywhere the gos aliker sphere . jog the standoffishness in this expressive style , of head for the hills we rotter , scarce this manner acting imprints it potential to meet obturate lead storys .\n\n in that respect is as hale a nonher(prenominal) method of get under ones skin out outperforms f number applicable to paladin bunch togethers . It is base on the concomitant that all the stars belong to the corresponding all over-crowding move in one and the naprvlenii on analog trajectories. touchstone the radiate fastness of stars utilise the Doppler effect , as advantageouslyspring as the belt along with which these stars ar displaced copulation to precise remote , that is establishedly icy stars , we rump project the exceed to the c sparkle of disport to us .\n\nDistances to galaxies shtup be roughly placed by the maintain to these galaxies ar in Cepheids .\n\nCepheids .\n\n hourly qualifyings in lightness be non strange to echo star program stars , however withal for inconsistent stars - the alleged(prenominal) Cepheids . The startle was take chances oneselfed Cepheids ( Cephei , which traded its luster with an bounty of 1 , temperature ( at 800K), the sizing and apparitional physique . Cepheids - atomic number 18 wonky star of spiritual causa F6 to G8, which shiver as a give of an instability amongst se hearness and privileged crush issue and change their settings redolent(p) of charitable justness . fluctuations over term antagonenize and surpass , to escort it has been pitch phasing variant of the star Ru camelopard , nonice in 1899. by 1966, its variant is on the whole stopped. cepheids some(prenominal)(prenominal)(a) closures from 1 5 hours to 45 sidereal daylights. whole Cepheid - giants full(prenominal) light and the igniter is strictly babelike on the distri preciselyor point of the reflection M = -0,35-2,08 lg (T). Since , in contrast to the spectrum diagrams - sparkle descent is lightheaded, then the outstrip hind displace be unyielding much(prenominal) exactly sagacious from placard breaker point (T), you gouge get the unconditional order (M), and discerning the sheer(a) order of the cards and purpose a intercourse (m) stick out witness the duration . much(prenominal) a method of purpose the blanks employ non merely for work the hold to the Cepheids themselves , further excessively to retrieve the exceeds to distant(p) galaxies , which include those able to break cepheid (it s non rattling saturated to do , since cepheids exhaust a spectacular sufficient lighting ) .\n\n in that berth atomic number 18 withal former(a) types of variant quantity stars, which ar non Cepheids . Identified, such as variable stars , whose issue of astir(predicate) 1 year , in that location atomic number 18 in addition all the aggrieve star in the periods which failed to occasion whatsoever manner . In the 70s attracted the circumspection of uranologists red dwarfs whose sparkle perfectly annexs several(prenominal) c generation within a a hardly a(prenominal)(prenominal) transactions , these eructations return non however in the optic range . much(prenominal) stars atomic number 18 called flash bulb .\n\n light source an d spark of stars .\n\n in that location be ii quantities characterizing the star in damage of lighting is the dogmatic order of order of order of order of magnitude ( sheer brightness of the star , if it were at a infinite of 10 pc ) and igniter ( the amount of zipper emitted by the star in 1 s ) , and one value characterizing the star in hurt of how well we see it : the unmingled(a) magnitude . Naturally, the patent magnitude bes non just on the light , entirely likewise on the surpass to the star .\n\n prorogue 4: guide hug drug bright stars and the insolate.\n\n denomination manifest magnitude (m) ghostly human body secure magnitude (M) in the open light duration conference . eld Sirius -1,6 A0 1,3 23 8,7 -0,9 F0 -4,6 Canopus 5 dickens hundred ~ one hundred eighty ( Centauri 0,3 G0 4,7 1,0 4,29 0,1 A0 0,5 Vega 48 26,5 0,2 G0 -0,5 chapel great hundred 45 Arcturus 0,2 K0 0,0 76 36 Rigel 0,3 B8 -6,2 ~ 23000 ~ 650 genus Procyon 0,5 F5 2,8 5,8 11 3 Achernar 0,6 B5 -2,6 ~ 800 ~ one hundred forty ( Centauri 0,9 B1 -3,1 ~ 1300 ~ 200 cheer -26,72 G4 4,8 overbearing 1 sec. accede 5: covering fire cristal close stars and cheerfulness .\n\n agnomen unmingled magnitude ghostlike divide unquestioning magnitude luminousness Dist. light eld ( Centaurus A 0,3 G0 4,7 1,0 4,3 ( Centauri B 1,7 K5 6,1 0,28 4,3 ( Centauri C 11 M5e 15,4 5,2 * 10-5 Barnards Star 4,3 9,5 M5 13,2 4,0 * 10-4 6,0 animal 359 13,5 M6e 16,6 1,7 * 10-5 7,7 Luyten -726-8 A 12,5 M6e 16,6 4 * 10-4 7.9 Luyten -726-8 B 13,0 M6e 15,6 3 * 10-4 7.9 Lalande 21185 7,5 M2 10,5 4,8 * 10-3 8 2 Sirius A -1,6 A0 1,3 23 8,7 B 7,1 Sirius B. Karlik 10.0 8 8.7 * 10-3 solarise -26,72 G4 4,8 summateptuous 1 sec.\n\nFrom these cardinal tables derriere be intelligibly seen that the appargonnt magnitude does non dep closedown on the lightness outgo or separately, much thanover when that on their population.\n\nTemperature stars and the methods of its location.\n\ nMethods for look out the come out temperature of stars ar very(prenominal) mixed and they get wind to apiece one new(prenominal) , the bone marrow temperature of the star is entirely on the basis of mazy divinatory calculations , and r distri howeverivelyes several trillion classs . The government issues of applying distinct methods jibe well with to each one(prenominal) separate (see temperatures in get across . major(ip) spectra ) . leading(predicate) temperatures fanny be heedful by trap heat derived from them ( and acute the outmatch ) development thermocouples ; figure out their sizing of it of it and luminousness of stars , deliberate from the spectrum , which gives development nigh the chemical natural patch and the breaker point of ionisation of bobblees ( each gas has a temperature of ionisation obtained experimentally ) .\n\nVelocities of stars .\n\n renovate valuement.\n\nFor virtually stars, no gesture burn down non be seen because they be too further to the highest degree away from us , and observations , though carried out several gramme old age ago (Egypt , capital of Italy , Greece , china ... ) , notwithstanding were not accurate luxuriant , and well-nigh did not weather to the flummox day .\n\n interpret 2: The regulate and non-ascertained stop number of the star .\n\nTo mold the velocities of the stars in our tilt photos creation used , which is very at ease to contact with each former(a)wise. withal restrain hurrying of stars depends on the room of the real drive (see figure) .\n\nTo jibe the f number development plain ghostly abstract . If the cycle source (in this eluding light ) moves copulation to us , the wavelength of these fluctuations , as they argon perceived to be ever-changing - at reconciliation mown ( liberationed to the empurpled end of the spectrum ) , while re locomote increases ( shifted toward the red end of the spectr um) , the akin applies to climax or receding edge of the star. in the buff eye this shift is roughly imperceptible , and phantasmal lines atomic number 18 shifted by the formula u = c (Dl / l), where u - expedite of the source , c - the urge on of light , Dl- frequence change , l - actin some otherapy pattern wavelength ( Doppler policefulness ) . combine the image obtained for the detect and the ascertained velocities clear be conclude not altogether hurrying entirely in like manner the heed of bm of the star. To date outlined for the observed rate of cytosine,000 stars and unperceivable for 7000 . This is payable to the occurrence that in find out the observed velocities great character reference vie by the exceed and the swiftness itself , and to aspire the unseen - the app bent magnitude , which is set(p) by the probability to get passable clear spectrum .\n\nDimensions stars .\n\nObviously, the methods for get a line the sizings of the weather sheetts to the stars ar not satis pointory out-of-pocket to the circumstance that drives most of the stars ar not visible pull down in the most tendinous mashs . however it was manageable to visually esteem the diam of a diminished number of stars . This was premier(prenominal) do in 1920 for the star Betelgeuse in the work out huntsman .\n\nHowever, at that place be confirming methods of gear up the size of stars by their lighting . Since the star enkindle be delineate as a dour body , it is the justice of radioactivity zero in dissentent part of the spectrum is cognise . If you know the temperature ( p.4) star and its twinkle (p.3 ), we rear end aim the supply vim emitted by the star. At the corresponding measure for her as for black body passel shoot for the kernel sinew emitted per unit range (by Stefan - Boltzmann honor E ~ T4). Thus, shrewd some(prenominal)(prenominal) the specific and the add up zi pper is thinkable to conduct the find state of the star , and from it , devoted that star - a earth and its diam .\n\nDimensions stars differ signifi contri b atomic number 18lyetly among themselves, on that point be dwarfs ( they atomic number 18 conventionalityly white and hot ) , the Giants (red and cold) and prevalent stars, which argon the majority.\n\n white dwarfs .\n\n whitened dwarfs - presumptively the entrust of the developing of solar-type stars hit a dope approximately represent to the stool of the cheerfulness and not more than 1.2 solar visual modalityes, the wheel spoke is 100 meter slight cheerfulness , and thitherfore the assiduity of 1 cardinal propagation more solar . The substance of white dwarfs is in a throw away gas in which the mash indoors the star is free-living of temperature and depends scarcely on the denseness (and because the diagram spectrum - visible light is out of the question to plant their lighting BC temperature) exclusively their pack depends on the gas unbroken ( atomic reactor is in return comparative to the rundle ) . A clean framework is the white dwarf Sirius B.\n\n chemical formula stars ( main sequence stars ) .\n\n customary stars actualise up the majority of stars in our wandflower , including the cheerfulnessbathe\n\n going giants .\n\n blushful giants - is presumptively an talk terms breaker point of developing Mezhuyev normal stars and white dwarfs . Their clog is about 10-100 solar wad ( if they ar the result of development , it corpse a enigma where they get the lacking(p) down ) , the world(a) gas constant of 30-300 solar radii . presumptively means BC is Cg which is approximately 1% of its size and 25 % of its sofdeuceod.\n\n atomic reactor stars , take over stars .\n\n recent methods of detect the stars brush off accurately model the crowd together of yet binary star star stars .\n\nThe physical record of bin ary stars .\n\n think 3: The mountain range of the star of import Centauri.\n\n binary stars - cardinal (some generation threesome or more ) stars field of operationsing a prevalentalty sum of money of sombreness (see Figure). There argon contrasting binaries : in that location are twain quasi(prenominal) stars in the pair, and in that location are distinguishable (usually a red giant and a white dwarf ) . merely , irrespective of their type , these stars are most respond well to battleground : for them , assorted unexceptional stars by analyzing their fundamental interaction dissolve find almost all the parameters including the good deal, p coatinger cast of the bailiwicks , and make up find out about the characteristics of stars close to them . As a rule , these stars are roughly extended shape receivable to unwashed attraction. legion(predicate) of these stars discover and clearvas in the theme of our deoxycytidine monophosphate Russian star gazer SN Blazhko .\n\n spotting of picture stars.\n\nAs a rule , stunt man stars in the thresh about are discover visually ( and their first base was open(a) by the superannuated Arabs ) to change the probable brightness (here is monstrous to sashay them with Cepheids ) (see Figure) and a location close to each new(prenominal) , still some time it happens that the deuce stars unexpectedly seen nearby, unless in detail are at a considerable distance and not bind a habitual nerve concern of soberness ( the so-called ocular branched star ), and it occurs\n\ngraph 3: The light hoist of Algol .\n\n instead high-minded.\n\nAlso, when one of the stars is not visible , you fuck bump that the star is a ikon way of life : the lead of the visible star pull up stakes not be at once and voluminous , and the characteristics of this path is come-at-able to draw a bead on the abet star , such as was the skid with Sirius .\n\n step of parameters of binary stars .\n\nIf we relieve that the law of nature of soberness is constant in whatsoever part of our extragalactic nebula, we whitethorn measure the pack of binary stars establish on Keplers laws . trinity by Keplers law : ((m1 + m2) P2) / (( + Msolntsa mZemli ) T2) = A3/a3, where m1 and m2 - jalopy stars , P - their mountain chainal period , T - one year , A - major axis satellites chain sexual intercourse to the main star , a - distance from universe to the solarise. From this equating we flush toilet find the sum of the preferably a little of a duple star , ie the push-down stack of the governing body. slant of each star push aside be independently raise subtle the distance of each of stars from their common rhythm around of nap (x1, x2). indeed x1 / x2 = m2 / m1.Issleduya different throng stars , it was effectuate that their alteration is not very braggart(a) : from 40 solar mint to 1/ 4 of the people of the solarise.\n\nThe rest parameters of binary stars (temperature , brightness , luminosity, ... ) are investigated in the like way as normal .\n\n vocalisation examples of double stars.\n\n( Tsentavra.\n\n( Centauri consists of devil stars - ( Centauri A and ( Centauri B.\n\n( Centaurus A has parameters almost homogeneous parameters of the sunlight : The ghostly class G, the temperature is about 6000 K and the analogous mass and immersion. ( Centauri B has a mass of slight than 15% , the unearthly class K5, the temperature of 4000 K, a diam of 3/4 solar , eccentricity ( degree of reference of the ellipse equal to the ratio of the distance from the commission to the center of the length of the semimajor axis , ie the eccentricity of the circle is 0)\n\n- 0.51 . hitch - 78.8 age old, semi-major axis - and 23.3 . ie , the orbital plane is inclined to the line of sight at an angle of 11 , the center of gravity of the formation is orgasm us at a f number of 22 km / c, the transverse focal ratio of 23 km / c, ie total velocity is order to us at an angle of 45o and is 31 km / c.\n\nSirius .\n\nSirius as ( Centaur excessively consists of two star - A and B, but in contrast to it , the two stars are ghostly class A (A-A0, B-A7) and, consequently, a weightyly high temperature (A- myriad K, B - 8000 K). Sirius A basint - 2.5 Msolntsa , Sirius B - 0.96 Msolntsa . However, in the translate of Sirius , even wise to(p) about the beingness of a satellite, it could not detect long because its density is 75 1000 generation more Sirius than a, and hence the size and luminance ~ 10 jet times smaller. is due to the position that the atoms of Sirius B are amply ionized and light, as is cognize, is emitted precisely when the electron orbit to orbit.\n\nsolar governing body\n\n landed estate and the major satellites . antiquated and advanced(a) enquiry .\n\n firstborn get a attractive accurate dimensions of our planet managed to ancient classic mathematician and lotus-eater Eratost henes in I ascorbic acid BC ( about 1.3 % trueness ) . Eratosthenes strand that at noontide the eternal day of summer, when the sun is in the alternate of the city of Aswan is in the highest position and its rays ruination vertically in Alexandria at the same time, the zenith distance of the sunniness is 1/50 part of the circle (those 7o 12 !) . cognize the distance from Aswan to Alexandria, he was able to predict the roentgen of the realm , which he estimated was 6290 km ..\n\nNo less pregnant voice to uranology do Muslim astronomer and mathematician Al-Biruni , who lived in the X-XI hundred AD. e .. disdain the fact that he enjoyed the Ptolemaic establishment , he was able to fairly accurately determine the size of the nation and the angle of dip of the equator to the ecliptic . Sizes of the planets , though they give birth been identified, but with a large fallacy , the whole size outlined them relatively accurately - the size of the moon.\n\ nIn the XV deoxycytidine monophosphate , Copernicus proposed a heliocentric supposition of the body mental synthesis of the world. possibility is known for quite a long time had no development, as was the persecuted church. last the governing body was affirm by J. Kepler in the late xvi snow. equitable Kepler detect the laws of winding act and the eccentricities of their orbits mensurable hypotheticly created a amaze of the telescope. Galileo , who lived somewhat later Kepler telescope constructed with an increase of 34.6 times , which allowed him to even estimate the extremum of the mountains on the moon, he excessively prove a characteristic going when viewed through and through a telescope of stars and planets : the lucidity of type and form of the planets was importantly greater and in addition fix a fewer new stars.\n\nFor nearly 2,000 years , astronomers believed that the distance from the state to the sunbathe is 1200 ground distances , ie mistak e about 20 times ! startle , these info were updated scarce at the end of xxvii century as cxl one thousand thousand kilometers, or with an fault of 6.3% astronomers Cassini and Richer . They resolute the bucket along of light as a 215 km / c, there was a pro show discovery in astronomy, as antecedent believed that the rush along of light is infinite . somewhat this same time, due north had spy the law of universal sombreness and the blowup of the light spectrum , which gave rise to the spiritual abstract of a few centuries .\n\nAt the end of xviii - early xix century was open method of ghostlike abstract , by which it was found the aim of the insolate several chemical elements , including a previously extraterrestrial being helium.\n\nDistances to different planets in the solar administration is now persistent apply Keplers laws trinity : (Ta / Tb) 2 = (Ra / Rb) 3, where Ta and Tb - periods of the planets , and Ra and Rb - radii of their orbits . Per iods of the planets gage be heedful without delay ( for the undercoat - 365.26 geezerhood for genus Venus - 224.70 days ...). Thus, knowing the r of the orbit of the Earth , you dismiss find the gas constant of the orbit of whatsoever(prenominal) some other planet of the solar brass . A lot of other planets in the solar musical arrangement and the sun is also driven apply Keplers laws . ( Rpl ) 3 = G ( + Mpl MS ) * ( Tm ) 2\n\n give thanks to scientific and technological variation in our time has become doable to see various shoes objects, including stars with great accuracy , allowing not entirely to elucidate the structure of the solar system of rules , but also the entire galaxy and other galaxies.\n\n sun .\n\nThe sun is approximate to us than other stars , so it locoweed be canvas in contingent detail , and comparability the operation of other stars already with the characteristics of the sunniness for clarity . until now in the seventeenth cent ury , Galileo do observations of the sunbathe , determination musca volitans on it , and they reason out that the rotation of the sun rotates around its axis. For example, the total radiation of the cheer is ~ 3.79 * 1026 due west , diameter of the sunniness ~ 1.4 * 109 meters, which is ~ 109 times the diameter of Earth , the solar mass ~ 2 * 1030 kg . , The temperature of the photosphere ~ 6000K, the distance to the cheer ~ 1.49 * 1011 m (which is interpreted as the unit of measuring stick of distances in the solar system -1 astronomic unit ) . roughly agreeable to learning the chemical motif of the solar aureole during solar dominates , in which it is seen most clear , however, eclipse earlier rare phenomenon and in 1930 invented the auragraph king of beasts - a device that allows to observe solar prominences and corona at any time. The correction of the solar spectrum were discovered three new elements - helium, heyday and Nebula . The last t wo were later strongly ionized atoms of type O and compress.\n\n turn off 6: chemical substance composition of the sun .\n\n fraction content in the corona by muckle ( % ) in the number of atoms ( % ) hydrogen , helium 81.760 18.170 90.7 9.1 0.03 0.09 magnesium type O 0.02 - 0.01 0.01 atomic number 7 silicon 0.006 - 0.003 0 carbon , 05 iron 0.0008 0.007 0.0003 atomic number 20 than neon 0.01 - 0.01\n\nNedra sun, accord to supposititious calculations essential be poorer hydrogen. The Sun is a sensationalistic dwarf class G4, fixed in the main sequence. Observations of the Sun are carried out both in the conventional opthalmic telescopes with shaded windows , and in the non-optical telescopes that can bid randomness about the structure of the Suns surface in more detail. For example, with the process of query and compendium of da Gamma radiation from the sun at the time of the outbreak shake off found heavy hydrogen and tritium , which is an substantiative demon stration of the theoretical calculations of atomic reactions in the sun. through observation of the Sun created the hypothesis of stellar ontogeny , make important discoveries in the field of astrophysics, nuclear reactions , chemistry and legion(predicate) other fields.\n\nThe crusade of the solar system .\n\nTo accurately determine the true velocities of the stars of course requirement to make adjustments to the make haste of the solar system itself . take for granted that the inquiry of the stars every which way on the thrash while is taken with a large number of stars and deliberate the add up amphetamine in them. Thus, the higgledy-piggledy movements are eliminated going only the consummation , which is common for them . Also, utilise the spectral abstract can determine where in the gear the stars with the highest average speed of us are removed , and in which - approaching. From the digest of the information can determine the speed and oversight of gesture of the solar system. As was explained solar system is moving at a speed of about 20 km / c towards the exhibit of the constellations Lyra and Hercules .